Artur Schnabel plays, Frederick Stock conducts Beethoven: Concerto for Piano and Orchestra No. 4 in G Major, Op. 58
(нем. Artur Schnabel, 17 апреля 1882, Липник, близ Бельско-Бяла —
15 августа 1951, Аксенштайн на Люцернском озере) — австрийский пианист,
педагог, композитор, один из крупнейших исполнителей XX в.
Происходил из еврейской семьи. Родился в Галиции (сегодня — Моравия, Чехия). С
7-летнего возраста учился игре на фортепиано в Вене у Теодора Лешетицкого
(учитель сказал ученику: Ты никогда не будешь пианистом. Ты - музыкант, что в устах Лешетицкого звучало весьма ядовито). Затем Шнабель учился у О. Мандычевского, одного из ближайших друзей
Брамса; однажды Шнабель слушал исполнение и самого Брамса, игравшего свой
Первый фортепианный квартет.
С 1900 г. пианист выступал в Берлине. Уже тогда его
репертуар окончательно сложился: Бах, Моцарт, Бетховен, Шуберт, Шуман, Брамс. Между тем
собственные сочинения Шнабеля целиком относились к атональной музыке.
Музыкант гастролировал в США, России, Великобритании, Испании. С 1925 преподавал
в Берлинской Высшей школе музыки. Многократно выступал в ансамблях с Пабло
Казальсом, Карлом Флешем, Хиндемитом (как альтистом), Пьером Фурнье, Йожефом
Сигети, Хуго Беккером, Григорием Пятигорским.
В 1933, после прихода Гитлера к власти,
покинул Германию. Жил в Великобритании, Италии, с 1939 — в США (в 1944 получил
американское гражданство). После окончания Второй мировой войны выступал в
Европе, но никогда не возвращался в Германию, отказавшись принять даже
приглашение Вильгельма Фуртвенглера.
Оказал большое влияние на Гленна Гульда.
О ФредерикеСтокесм. например
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra (CSO)
is an American orchestra based in Chicago, Illinois. It is one of the five
American orchestras commonly referred to as the "Big Five". Founded
in 1891, the Symphony makes its home at Orchestra Hall in Chicago and plays a
summer season at the Ravinia Festival. The music director designate is Riccardo
Muti, due to begin his tenure in 2010.
In 1891 Charles Norman Fay, a Chicago
businessman, invited Theodore Thomas to establish an orchestra in Chicago.
Conducted by Theodore Thomas under the name "Chicago Orchestra", the
orchestra played its first concert on October 16, 1891 at the Auditorium
Theatre. It is one of the oldest orchestras in the United States, along with
the New York Philharmonic, the Boston Symphony Orchestra and the Saint Louis
Orchestra Hall, now a component of the
Symphony Center complex, was designed by Chicago architect Daniel H. Burnham
and completed in 1904. Maestro Thomas served as music director for thirteen
years until his death shortly after the orchestra's newly built residence was
dedicated on December 14, 1904. The orchestra was renamed "Theodore Thomas
Orchestra" in 1905 and today, Orchestra Hall still has "Theodore
Thomas Orchestra Hall" inscribed in its façade.
In 1905, Frederick Stock became music
director, a post he held until his death in 1942. The orchestra was renamed
"Chicago Symphony Orchestra" in 1913.
Other music directors have included Désiré
Defauw, Artur Rodziński, Rafael Kubelík, Fritz Reiner, Jean Martinon,
Sir Georg Solti and Daniel Barenboim.
Maestro Barenboim resigned from his post in
2006 in order to focus on his career in Europe with the Staatskapelle Berlin
opera company, La Scala in Milan, and also with the West-Eastern Divan
Orchestra which he co-founded. Barenboim's final concerts leading the Chicago
Symphony Orchestra took place on June 15–17 2006. On 27 April 2006, the
orchestra named Bernard Haitink to the role of principal conductor and Pierre
Boulez to the role of conductor emeritus "while [the] music director
search continues." These appointments began in the 2006–2007 season.
On May 5, 2008, Chicago Symphony Orchestra
Association President Deborah Rutter announced that the orchestra had named
Riccardo Muti as its 10th music director, starting with the 2010–2011 season,
for an initial contract of 5 years.
The orchestra has also had many distinguished
guest conductors, including Richard Strauss, John Williams, Arnold Schoenberg,
Sergei Prokofiev, Sergei Rachmaninov, Maurice Ravel, Edward Elgar, Aaron
Copland, Leonard Slatkin, André Previn, Michael Tilson Thomas, Leonard
Bernstein, Leopold Stokowski, Morton Gould, Erich Leinsdorf, Walter Hendl,
Eugene Ormandy, George Szell and Charles Münch. Many of these guests have also
recorded with the orchestra.
The three principal guest conductors of the
orchestra have been Carlo Maria Giulini, Claudio Abbado, and Pierre Boulez.
Music performed by the orchestra has been
heard in movies, including Casino conducted by Sir Georg Solti, and Fantasia
2000 conducted by James Levine.
The Chicago Symphony holds an annual
fundraiser, originally known as the Chicago Symphony Marathon, more recently as
"Radiothon", and now "Symphonython", in conjunction with
Chicago radio station WFMT. As part of the event, the Orchestra has, since
1986, released tracks from their broadcast archives on double LP/CD
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra maintains a
summer home at Ravinia in Highland Park, Illinois. The orchestra first
performed there during Ravinia Park's second season in November 1905 and
continued to appear there on and off through August 1931, after which the Park
fell dark due to the Great Depression. The Orchestra helped to inaugurate the
first season of the Ravinia Festival in August 1936 and has been in residence
at the Festival every summer since.
Many conductors have made their debut with the
Chicago Symphony at Ravinia, and several have gone on to become the artistic
director, or primary summertime guest conductor at Ravinia, including Seiji
Ozawa (1964–1968), James Levine (1973–1993), and Christoph Eschenbach
(1995–2003). As of 2005, James Conlon holds the title of Ravinia music
The Chicago Symphony has amassed a discography
numbering more than 900. Recordings by the Orchestra have earned sixty Grammy
Awards from the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. These include
several Classical Album of the Year awards, awards in Best Classical
Performance in vocal soloist, choral, instrumental, engineering and orchestral
On May 1, 1916, Frederick Stock recorded the
Wedding March from Felix Mendelssohn's music to A Midsummer Night's Dream for
what was then known as the Columbia Graphophone Company. Stock and the
orchestra made numerous recordings for Columbia Records and the Victor Talking
Machine Company, renamed RCA Victor in 1929. The orchestra's first non-acoustic
electrical recordings were made for Victor in 1925, including a performance of
Karl Goldmark's In Springtime overture. These early electrical
recordings were made in Victor's Chicago studios; within a couple of years
Victor began recording the orchestra in Orchestra Hall. Stock continued
recording until 1942, the year he died.
In 1951, Rafael Kubelík made the first modern
high fidelity recordings with the orchestra, in Orchestra Hall, for Mercury.
Like the very first electrical recordings, these performances were made with a
single microphone. Philips has reissued these performances on compact disc with
the original Mercury label and liner notes.
In March 1954, Fritz Reiner made the first
stereophonic recordings with the orchestra, again in Orchestra Hall, for RCA
Victor, including a performance of Richard Strauss' Also sprach Zarathustra.
Reiner and the orchestra continued to record for RCA through 1962. These were
mostly recorded in RCA's triple-channel "Living Stereo" process. RCA
has digitally remastered the recordings and released them on CD and SACD. Jean
Martinon also recorded with the orchestra for RCA Victor during the 1960s,
producing performances that have been reissued on CD.
Sir Georg Solti recorded primarily for Decca
in recordings that were issued in the U.S. on the London label, including a
highly-acclaimed Mahler series, recorded in the historic Medinah Temple. Many
of the recordings with Daniel Barenboim have been released on Teldec.
The Chicago Symphony first broadcast on the
radio in 1925. There have been broadcasts ever since, except for a few years
during World War II and a hiatus between October 2002 and April 2007. The
reason for the latter break was a dispute between the musicians' union and CSO
management over extra pay for musicians for radio broadcasts. The Orchestra
offered to match the broadcast fees of the highest-paying US orchestra, but the
union refused the offer. Henry Fogel, then president of the Chicago Symphony
Orchestra Association, told the Tribune, "I think the musicians'
representatives believe we should find a way to fund payments at the levels
they expect, and frankly we just cannot." With the resolution of the
dispute, the Chicago Symphony radio syndication resumed with a 52-week series.
The broadcasts are sponsored by BP and air on 98.7 WFMT in Chicago and the WFMT
Radio Network. They consist of 39 weeks of recordings of live concerts, as well
as highlights from the CSO's vast discography.
The CSO has also appeared on a series of
telecasts on WGN-TV, beginning in 1953. The early 1960s saw the videotaped
telecast series Music from Chicago, conducted by Fritz Reiner and guest
conductors including Arthur Fiedler, George Szell, Pierre Monteux, and Charles
Munch. Many of these televised concerts, from 1953 to 1963, have since been
released to DVD by VAI Distribution.
Georg Solti also conducted a series of
concerts with the Chicago Symphony that were broadcast in the 1970s on PBS.
In 2007, the Chicago Symphony formed its own
recording label, CSO Resound. After an agreement was reached with the
Orchestra's musicians, arrangements were made for new recordings to be released
digitally at online outlets and on compact disc.The first CSO Resound CD,
recording Bernard Haitink's rendition of Mahler's Third Symphony, was released
in the spring of 2007. The following releases were Bruckner's Seventh symphony
conducted by Haitink, Shostakovich's Fifth by Chung, Mahler's Sixth and
Shostakovich's Fourth by Haitink.
Frederick Stock founded the Civic Orchestra of
Chicago, the first training orchestra in the United States affiliated with a
major symphony orchestra, in 1919. Its goal is to recruit pre-professional
musicians and train them as high-level orchestra players. Many alumni have gone
on to play for the CSO or other major orchestras.
The Civic Orchestra performs half a dozen
orchestral concerts and a chamber music series annually in Symphony Center and
in other venues throughout the Chicago area free of charge to the public.